Thrust Area: Systems Assessment and Best Practices [CERC 2.0]
The CERC Clean Vehicles Consortium seeks to contribute to dramatic improvements in technologies with the potential to reduce the dependence of vehicles on oil and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. It aims to build a foundation of knowledge, technologies, human capabilities, and relationships in mutually beneficial areas that will position the United States and China for a future with highly efficient clean vehicles that have very low environmental impacts. Joint research is conducted in the following areas: Advanced Batteries and Energy Conversion, Vehicle Technologies, Connected and Automated Vehicles, and Systems Assessment.
Task 1) LCA of wireless charge for PEVs
Task 1.1 Identify the feasible cases/scenarios for deploying dynamic wireless charging infrastructure in both U.S. and China
Feasible scenarios of vehicle types (buses, taxi, trucks, or private passenger cars), powertrain (all-electric vs. hybrid), service (personal travel, public transit, or commercial freight), and locations (urban vs. rural, highway vs. city roadways) for dynamic wireless charger deployment will be identified. Extensive literature review and a feasibility analysis in terms of economic and environmental performance will be conducted, which will serve as a basis for subsequent tasks.
Task 1.2 Establish a life cycle inventory of dynamic wireless charging infrastructure and integrate with GREET model
Based on the identified potentially feasible cases/scenarios, a detailed and comprehensive life cycle inventory analysis will be conducted to quantify the life cycle primary energy, GHG emissions, and criteria pollutant emissions for the material production, manufacturing, use/maintenance, and end-of-life disposal stages of dynamic wireless charging infrastructure and hardware devices. These assessments will be conducted using existing datasets from GREET and other databases, industry partners, and academic partners in Thrust area Three. The target deliverable is to report the primary energy consumption, GHG emissions, and criteria pollutant emissions per lane-mile of dynamic wireless charging infrastructure, and integrating this wireless charging infrastructure component into the GREET model.
CERC CVC LCA of Connected and Automated Vehicles [CERC 3.0]
The connected and automated vehicle (CAV) is an emerging, transformative technology that could fundamentally change the current transportation system. CAV technology can also dramatically impact transportation energy and environmental emissions. Characteristics of a CAV system that will determine its energy performance include ecodriving, platooning, lightweighting, rightsizing, reduced driving to locate parking, ride sharing, congestion mitigation, higher travel demand due to reduced travel cost, increased travel by underserved populations, and faster highway speeds. The combined effects of these characteristics are highly uncertain. Stephens et al. (2016) estimated that these factors can range from a 60% reduction in energy consumption up to a 200% increase.
Previous energy analysis research did not account for production and operational burdens of CAV equipment. The first comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) model of CAV subsystem equipment was conducted by Gawron et al. (2018), which evaluated operational impacts of Level 4 CAV sensing and computing subsystems integrated into internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) and battery electric vehicle (BEV) versions of a Ford Focus sedan. The results indicated that CAV subsystems could increase vehicle primary energy use and GHG emissions by 3−20% due to increases in energy consumption, weight, drag, and data transmission requirements.
The proposed CERC research builds upon this LCA model of CAV subsystem equipment for a sedan. Three project objectives will expand the LCA modeling of CAVs by: 1) updating CAV subsystem equipment to address current and future technology requirements and developments; 2) developing an LCA model of CAV on SUV platforms; and 3) developing LCA modules of CAVs for incorporation in Argonne National Lab’s (ANL) GREET model.
Task 1 LCA modeling of different vehicle types for CAVs
Building on our previous research (Gawron et al. 2018), and driven by the large market share of SUVs, this task encompasses life cycle assessment of CAV subsystems for sport utility vehicles (SUV). SUV energy consumption and CAV subsystem equipment differs from sedans, which will impact CAV energy and GHG performance relative to sedans.
Task 2 Update existing model given development in CAV subsystem equipment
New technology and hardware are constantly being developed for CAVs. This task will update the existing life cycle inventory of CAV subsystem equipment (Gawron et al. 2018) by refining models for production, use (energy consumption, weight, drag, and data transmission requirements) and end-of-life burdens of the CAV subsystem, including lidar and computing and communication systems.
Task 3 Integrate the updated life cycle inventory of CAVs into GREET model
This task will involve collaboration with the ANL GREET team to integrate the CAV subsystem modules into existing vehicle models in GREET. This integration will facilitate and expand the functionality of GREET in modeling advanced and emerging technologies. These subsystem modules can also be integrated into the GREET-China version.