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Continuing benefits of the Montreal Protocol and protection of the stratospheric ozone layer for human health and the environment

CSS Publication Number
Full Publication Date
19 May 2024

The protection of Earth’s stratospheric ozone (O3) is an ongoing process under the auspices of the universally ratifed Montreal
Protocol and its Amendments and adjustments. A critical part of this process is the assessment of the environmental issues related to
changes in O3. The United Nations Environment Programme’s Environmental Efects Assessment Panel provides annual scientifc
evaluations of some of the key issues arising in the recent collective knowledge base. This current update includes a comprehensive
assessment of the incidence rates of skin cancer, cataract and other skin and eye diseases observed worldwide; the efects of UV
radiation on tropospheric oxidants, and air and water quality; trends in breakdown products of fuorinated chemicals and recent
information of their toxicity; and recent technological innovations of building materials for greater resistance to UV radiation.
These issues span a wide range of topics, including both harmful and benefcial efects of exposure to UV radiation, and complex
interactions with climate change. While the Montreal Protocol has succeeded in preventing large reductions in stratospheric O3,
future changes may occur due to a number of natural and anthropogenic factors. Thus, frequent assessments of potential environmental impacts are essential to ensure that policies remain based on the best available scientifc knowledge.

S. Madronich
G. H. Bernhard
P. J. Neale
A. Heikkilä
M. P. Sulbæk Andersen
A. L. Andrady
Research Areas
Impacts & Burdens

Applied photochemistry, Atmospheric photochemistry, Bioluminescence, Chronobiology, DNA repair, Energy transfer, Environmental photobiology, Environmental photochemistry, Excited state properties, Laser photochemistry, Luminescence, Mechanistic photochemistry, Organic and inorganic photochemistry, Photocarcinogenesis , Photochemical kinetic, Photochemistry of biomolecule, Photochemotherap, Photochromis, Photodegradatio, Photodermatolog, Photoelectrochemistry, UV

Publication Type
Journal Article
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Full Citation

S. Madronich, G. H. Bernhard, R. E. Neale. P. J. Neale, A. Heikkilä, M. P. Sulbæk Andersen, A. L. Andrady, P. J. Aucamp, A. F. Bais, A.T. Banaszak, P. J. Barnes, J. F. Bornman, L. S. Bruckman, R. Busquets, G. Chiodo, D.-P. Häder, M. L. Hanson, , S. Hylander, M. A. K. Jansen, R. M. Lucas, R. Mackenzie Calderon, C. Olsen, R. Ossola, K. K. Pandey, I. Petropavlovskikh, L. E. Revell, L. E. Rhodes, S. A. Robinson, T. M. Robson, K. C. Rose, T. Schikowski, K. R. Solomon, B. Sulzberger, T. J. Wallington, Q.-W. Wang, S.-Å. Wängberg, C. C. White, S. R. Wilson, and L. Zhu, Continuing benefits of the Montreal Protocol and protection of the stratospheric ozone layer for human health and the environment, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., (2024).