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Optimal Strategies for Hybrid Battery-Storage Systems Design

CSS Publication Number
Full Publication Date
June 28, 2023

As stationary hybrid energy-storage systems (HESS) for power systems applications have recently drawn interest due to their enhanced performance and decreasing cost, developing systematic approaches for HESS design while considering controls is gaining traction. Herein, a method is presented to optimally design hybrid battery storage by proposing a mathematical modeling framework, formulated as a mixed integer linear programming model. The optimization is capable of handling multiple subsystems of batteries, considering their economic and technological performance. Decisions involve sizing of the batteries, optimal temporal and strategic dispatch to end uses, and energy sources for charging each battery. The applicability of the model is tested on four case studies for three battery chemistries representing distinct objectives: high-power, high-energy, and second life. Compared to traditionally designed battery storage with a homogeneous battery, optimally designed hybrid systems can save 12%–26% of system costs, depending on the nature of the dispatch profile. Findings point to design preference toward the second life battery supplemented with some high-power or high-energy battery capacity, or both. With the utilized electricity price structure, customers can experience approximately 10%–35% reduction in their bills.

Mariya Koleva, Center for Energy Conversion & Storage Systems, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Ying Shi, Energy Management System, Lucid Motors
Kilian McKenna, Grid Planning and Analysis Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Adarsh Nagarajan, Grid Planning and Analysis Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Research Areas
Framework, Methods & Tools
Energy Systems

Battery-Storage Systems Design

Hybrid Energy-Storage Systems

Publication Type
Journal Article
Digital Object Identifier
Full Citation

Koleva, M., Shi, Y., McKenna, K., Craig, M. and Nagarajan, A. (2023), Optimal Strategies for Hybrid Battery-Storage Systems Design. Energy Technol. 2300115. CSS23-08