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A Scalable Compact Additively Manufactured Molten Salt to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Heat Exchanger for Solar Thermal Application

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Full Publication Date
August 23, 2023

Design of an additively manufactured molten salt (MS) to supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) primary heat exchanger (PHE) for solar thermal power generation is presented. The PHE is designed to handle temperatures up to 720 °C on the MS side and an internal pressure of 200 bar on the sCO2 side. In the core, MS flows through a three-dimensional periodic lattice network, while sCO2 flows within pin arrays. The design includes integrated sCO2 headers located within the MS flow, allowing for a counterflow design of the PHE. The sCO2 headers are configured to enable uniform flow distribution into each sCO2 plate while withstanding an internal pressure of 200 bar and minimizing obstruction to the flow of MS around it. The structural integrity of the design is verified on additively manufactured (AM) 316 stainless steel sub-scale specimens. An experimentally validated, correlation-based sectional PHE core thermofluidic model is developed to study the impact of flow and geometrical parameters on the PHE performance, with varied parameters including the mass flowrate, surface roughness, and PHE dimensions. A process-based cost model is used to determine the impact of parameter variation on build cost. The model results show that a heat exchanger with a power density of 18.6 MW/m3 (including sCO2 header volume) and effectiveness of 0.88 can be achieved at a heat capacity rate ratio of 0.8. The impact of design and AM machine parameters on the cost of the PHE are assessed.

Ines-Noelly Tano
Erfan Rasouli
Tracey Ziev
Junwon Seo
Nicholas Lamprinakos
Anthony Rollett
Ziheng Wu
Vinod Narayanan
Research Areas
Energy Systems

additive manufacturing, solar thermal, primary heat exchanger, supercritical carbon dioxide, molten salt, nickel superalloy, heat transfer, thermal power, laser powder bed fusion

Publication Type
Journal Article
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Full Citation

Tano, I., Rasouli, E., Ziev, T., Seo, J., Lamprinakos, N., Vaishnav, P., Rollett, A., Wu, Z., and Narayanan, V. (August 23, 2023). "A Scalable Compact Additively Manufactured Molten Salt to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Heat Exchanger for Solar Thermal Application." ASME. J. Sol. Energy Eng. February 2024; 146(1): 011007. CSS23-18