Application of Life Cycle Assessment to US Water and Wastewater Treatment Facilities
This study documents the energy intensity and environmental impacts from operation of water and wastewater treatment systems through case-studies in US. Life-cycle energy and impact assessments were conducted for the Ann Arbor Water Treatment Plant (WTP) and Ann Arbor Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Michigan. The framework for assessment was modified to assess the environmental burdens from Laguna WWTP in California and Ypsilanti Community Utility Authority (YCUA) WWTP in Michigan.
City of Ann Arbor
City of Santa Rosa - Laguna Wastewater Treatment
Ypsilanti Community Utility Authority Wastewater Treatment Plant
University of Michigan - Center for Sustainable Systems
University of Michigan - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Urban Systems and Built Environment