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Energy Consumption Simulation for Connected and Automated Vehicles: Eco-driving Benefits versus Automation Loads

CSS Publication Number
Full Publication Date
May, 2022

Eco-driving benefits and automation energy use burdens are important factors impacting the energy consumption of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs). However, challenges exist in evaluating the balance between these benefits and burdens under real-world driving conditions. Here we used a large dataset of 8064 real-world trips to establish analytical relationships between driving characteristics and fuel consumption for CAV sedans and sport utility vehicles (SUVs) with gasoline and battery electric powertrains. The regression-based model enables rapid estimation of eco-driving benefits using trip-level information (average speed and aggressiveness factor) with an accuracy similar to computationally intensive tools using second-by-second speed profiles. Three simulated scenarios reflecting different levels of smooth driving and avoidance of low-speed driving were considered. In the medium-level scenario, eco-driving reduces energy consumption by a median of 17% for gasoline vehicles and by 14% for battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Eco-driving benefits are more significant for trips with lower average speeds. Automation power consumption below approximately 1000 W is needed for eco-driving benefits to outweigh automation burdens. For trips with average speeds >60 km/h, even CAVs with an automation power consumption of 2000 W have fuel economies similar to non-automated vehicles.

Ruoyun Ma
Shaojun Zhang
Ye Wu
Research Areas
Mobility Systems

Fuel consumption, electric vehicles, energy consumption, automated vehicles, fuel economy, batteries, driver assistance systems, connectivity

Publication Type
Journal Article
Digital Object Identifier
Full Citation


He, Xiaoyi, Hyung Chul Kim, Ruoyun Ma, Timothy J Wallington, Gregory A. Keoleian, Robert De Dleine, Shaojun Zhang, and Ye Wu. (2023). "Energy Consumption Simulation for Connected and Automated Vehicles: Eco-driving Benefits versus Automation Loads," SAE International, Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles, 6(1). CSS22-07